UA-149348414-1 How agriculture shaped human civilization

 How agriculture shaped human civilization

Pre historic era is divided into 3 ages according to tools used by humans and their habitations. These are Palaeolithic ( BCE 2.5 mya - 10000) , Mesolithic (BCE 9000-4000) and Neolithic (BCE 4000-2500) mostly in common terms these are known as Old stone age, Middle stone age and New stone age respectively. 

          The remains of those eras tells us many things about their survival methods and technique they were using. In beginning of Palaeolithic age , humans were dependant on hunting and they used to travel from one place to another in search of food. Their habitats were caves and habitations were close to water resources. They used stone made hand axes, cleaver ,chopper. Later they invented fire and now they started cooking thier food. They lived in groups still they were unaware of social structure.

          No doubt invention of fire was a key point in human history. Still there was something missing that was sense of growing food. Primitive human faced Ice age too. In pro Ice age era temperature of earth was gradually increasing. Humans and nature both were going through evolution. Due to Increase in global temperature, animals became much faster than before.Now chasing animals and fast travelling both became difficult for primitive humans. So humans evolved their tool technique. Now they started using stone made flakes ,blades ,point borers, scrapers,parallel side blades . They may have used tools of wood and bone but these have not survived. 

          After passing approximately 2.5 million years humans started making semi permanent hut structure to live and domestication of animals. This era is known as Mesolithic (Microlithic). Humans started ritual and burial of thier loved ones . Now primitive humans were close to another key point that was domestication of plants which is commonly known as agriculture in present days. It took 6000 years to learn how to grow and how to live a sedentary life. 

          Mostly people believe Invention of fire and Second urbanisation is most crucial incident in history. I agree with them but I would like to say  that sense of domestication of plants led humans from primitive stage to civilization and finally 2nd urbanisation.

            Due to agriculture humans started using new kind of tools. Now they couldn't travel here and there so they started staying at one place this led to population growth. Due to the growth in population they couldn't rely on only natural and semi permanent habitats so they started making permanent houses. This sense of grouping and staying one place made primitive society. Still they were unaware of building social structure ,administrative system, trade etc.

          But now they had plenty of time because they didn't have to go here and there in search of food mostly meat because now they had pets for meat, milk and they grew grains. This extra time they used for extra curricular activities and they evolved themselves. First they learnt to express their thoughts and ideas by painting later they also learnt to celebrate mostly the ritual things. It might be  the celebration of birth of a child or might be last ritual of a person. But the fact is they could start all such activities just because they had time and extra time they got due to agriculture. You can see the evidences of most famous Harappan civilization in form of Bhimbetka paintings ( Madhya Pradesh, India). 

       Evidences of Second Urbanisation which was seen in Harappan civilisation's remains says all story about how humans used their time and evolved themselves. They learnt to make a society and electing a Chief. They learnt to make Pucca building by bricks. They learnt to make roads and drains. They learnt modern days grid system to make a city. They made social strata. Still Harappan society had no sense of trading or might be  there was a barter system not a monetary sytem. But by the time Humans learnt trading and momentary system. Every primitive society  may it be Africans or Mesopotamians , it evolved and developed and after passing thousands of year facing rise and fall Humans came in to modern era just because they learnt domestication of plants. They grew and they saved their time and used it to learn new things by the time.

- Kashish Bagi